Abbaye Saint-Pierre - Moissac - Tarn-et-Garonne - France

photo by Charlotte Ségurel8 377

Abbaye Saint-Pierre - Moissac - Tarn-et-Garonne - France — Fotopedia
Église Saint-Pierre, ancienne église abbatiale avec le portail (1130), un des chefs d'œuvre de la sculpture romane. De l'édifice du XIe siècle ne subsiste plus que le massif clocher-porche, sorte de donjon avec chemin de ronde, construit dans un but défensif mais dont le dernier étage ne date que de la fin de l'époque gothique.
Le cloître (fin du XIe siècle), est l'un des mieux conservés de l'Occident chrétien.

The Saint-Pierre abbey in Moissac has a 12th century tympanum, portico statues (including the famous trumeau figure of the Prophet Jeremiah) and cloister (which has a later 15th century roof structure).
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The kairō (回廊?), bu (?), sōrō or horō (歩廊?) is the Japanese version of a cloister, a covered corridor originally built around the most sacred area of a Buddhist temple, a zone which contained the Kondō and the pagoda. Nowadays it can be found also at Shinto shrines and at shinden-zukuri aristocratic residences.

The kairō and the rōmon were among the most important among the garan elements which appeared during the Heian period. The first surrounded the holiest part of the garan, while the second was its main exit. Neither was originally characteristic of Shinto shrines, but in time they often came to replace the traditional shrine surrounding fence called tamagaki. The earliest example of a kairō/rōmon complex can be found at Iwashimizu Hachiman-gū, a shrine now but a former shrine-temple (神宮寺?). The rōmon is believed to have been built in 886, and the kairō roughly at the same time. Itsukushima Jinja is an example of the mature form of the complex.

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Moissac is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Midi-Pyrénées region in southern France. The town is situated at the confluence of the Garonne and Tarn River on the Canal de Garonne and Route nationale N113 between Valence-d'Agen and Castelsarrasin.

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Midi-Pyrénées (French: [midi piʁene] ( ); Occitan: Miègjorn-Pirenèus or Mieidia-Pirenèus; Spanish: Mediodía-Pirineos) is the largest region of Metropolitan France by area, larger than the Netherlands or Denmark.

Midi-Pyrénées has no historical or geographical unity. It is one of the regions of France created in the late 20th century to serve as a hinterland and zone of influence for its capital, Toulouse, one of a handful of so-called "balancing metropolises" (métropoles d'équilibre). Another example of this is the region of Rhône-Alpes which was created as the region for Lyon.

The name chosen for the new region was decided by the French government without reference to the historical provinces (too many of them inside the region). The name was based on geography, Midi (i.e. "southern France") - Pyrénées (Pyrénées mountains that serve as the region's southern boundary), although the region also includes the southernmost part of the Massif Central, which has better communications with Languedoc-Roussillon than with Toulouse. The French adjective and name of the inhabitants of the region is: Midi-Pyrénéen.

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Moissac Abbey

Moissac Abbey was a Benedictine and Cluniac monastery in Moissac, Tarn-et-Garonne in south-western France. A number of its medieval buildings survive including the abbey church, which has famous and important Romanesque sculpture around the entrance.

According to legend, Moissac abbey was founded by Clovis (the Frankish king), but from historical information it was founded by Saint Didier, bishop of Cahors in the middle of the 7th century. The establishment of the monastery was difficult because of raids by the Moors and the Norsemen. The 11th and 12th centuries witnessed a first golden age, the result of Moissac being affiliated to the abbey of Cluny and its accepting the Cluniac Reforms, under the guidance of Durand de Bredons who was both the Abbot of Moissac and the bishop of Toulouse. This outstanding era witnessed the major abbots Dom Hunaud de Gavarret, and Dom Ansquitil; who had the doorway and tympanum built. In the 13th century, Raymond de Montpezat and then Bertrand de Montaigut, abbots and builders, ruled the abbey. Aymeric de Peyrac, writing his Chronicle in the 15th century in the castle of Saint Nicolas de la Grave reveals us those events.

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Romanesque architecture

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture. The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture.

Combining features of ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings and other local traditions, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading. Each building has clearly defined forms, frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan; the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials.

Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. The most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and frequently in use. The enormous quantity of churches built in the Romanesque period was succeeded by the still busier period of Gothic architecture, which partly or entirely rebuilt most Romanesque churches in prosperous areas like England and Portugal. The largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, northern Spain and rural Italy. Survivals of unfortified Romanesque secular houses and palaces, and the domestic quarters of monasteries are far rarer, but these used and adapted the features found in church buildings, on a domestic scale.

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1110s in architecture