Lesotho (i/lɨˈsuːtuː/ li-SOO-too), officially the Kingdom of Lesotho, is a landlocked country and enclave, completely surrounded by its only neighbouring country, South Africa. It is just over 30,000 km2 (11,583 sq mi) in size and has a population of approximately 2,067,000. Its capital and largest city is Maseru. Lesotho is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The name Lesotho translates roughly into the land of the people who speak Sesotho. About 40% of the population live below the international poverty line of US $1.25 a day.
Sani Pass is located in the western end of KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa on the road between Underberg and Mokhotlong, Lesotho it is a route that connects Kwazulu-Natal and Lesotho. It is a notoriously dangerous road, which requires the use of a 4x4 vehicle. This pass lies between the border controls of both countries and is approximately 9 km in length and requires above average driving experience. It has occasional remains of vehicles that did not succeed in navigating its steep gradients and poor traction surfaces, and has a catalogue of frightening stories of failed attempts at ascending the path over the Northern Lesotho mountains. While South African immigration at the bottom of the pass prohibits vehicles deemed unsuitable for the journey, the Lesotho border agents at the top generally allow vehicles of all types to attempt the descent. The Sani Pass dirt road is to be upgraded in two phases, with construction work commencing in December 2006. It was originally intended that the part from the Sani Pass Hotel to the Lesotho Border post be done in two phases, but this has subsequently been consolidated into a single 2nd phase. The Border between the two Countries closes at 4:00 pm every day and the Pass is often closed due to weather conditions, especially during winter. The Sani Pass was recently used in TV advertisements for the new Nissan 4x4 and Ford Ranger 4x4 cars.