Perspective, in context of vision and visual perception, is the way in which objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes; or their dimensions and the position of the eye relative to the objects. There are two main meanings of the term: linear perspective and aerial perspective.
The development of new forms of geometric projection in the construction of perspective corresponds with the invention of novel pictorial art forms of visual representation in the Italian Renaissance, since the fourteenth century and up till the end of the sixteenth century, and specifically within the circles of architectural and artistic experimentation and design. Treatises were composed on perspective by eminent theorists of art and architecture, including figures like Leon Battista Alberti, Lorenzo Ghiberti, and Piero della Francesca, aided also by experimental uses of optical devices through the installations of Filippo Brunelleschi. The investigations and writings of these Renaissance theorists of architecture and visual art were informed by the studies in classical optics of thirteenth-century Franciscan perspectivists like Roger Bacon, John Peckham, and Witelo, who all were directly inspired and influenced by the translation into Latin from Arabic of the Book of Optics (known in Latinate renditions as Perspectiva, and in Arabic as Kitab al-manazir) of the eleventh-century Arab polymath and optician, Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham).
The Octavio Frias de Oliveira bridge is a cable-stayed bridge in São Paulo, Brazil over the Pinheiros River, opened in May 2008. The bridge is 138 metres (453 ft) tall, and connects Marginal Pinheiros to Jornalista Roberto Marinho Avenue in the south area of the city.
The bridge deck is unusual due to its form, which is similar to an "X", crossing at the tower. The "X" is 76 meters wide at its base and 35.4 meters wide at the top.
It is the only bridge in the world that has two curved tracks supported by a single concrete mast. The two curved tracks, one at an elevation of 12 meters and the other at an elevation of 24 meters, have approximate lengths of 900 meters each.
At the end of December lights are put up on the cables and illuminated to create color effects like those on a Christmas tree. The bridge is also lit up on special occasions during the year and is often used for automobile advertisements on television.
The bridge has been attacked by vandals on several occasions. In 2011, thieves stole 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) of wire, worth R$ 200,000.00 (US$ 117,000.00). Later in August, vandals broke in the bridge's control room and destroyed the panels. On January 9, 2012, vandals stole 94 of the 142 searchlights of the bridge. It will take 90 days and R$ 1,000,000.00 (US$ 590,000.00) to completely re-establish the lighting system.
São Paulo (/ˌsaʊ ˈpaʊloʊ/; Portuguese pronunciation: [sɐ̃w ˈpawlu] ( listen); Saint Paul) is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city proper in the southern hemisphere and Americas and the world's eighth largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among the ten largest metropolitan areas on the planet. São Paulo is the capital of the state of São Paulo, Brazil's most populous state. It exerts strong regional influence in commerce, finance, arts and entertainment and a strong international influence. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus.