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UNICEF/Shehzad Noorani — Fotopedia
AFGHANISTAN: A boy is vaccinated against polio with ‘monovalent oral polio vaccine type 1’ (mOPV1) outside Poli Clinic in the Herat Bazaar neighbourhood of the southern city of Kandahar. Standard OPV is trivalent, targeting all three types of poliovirus. Type 1 is, however, the most prevalent and virulent, and mOPV1 has proven more than twice as effective in stopping its spread. (Type 3 reproduces more slowly and is therefore easier to contain. Type 2 has been eradicated for almost a decade.) UNICEF and WHO have called on all warring factions in the region to cease fighting during the three-day polio immunization drive..
In June 2007 in Afghanistan, chronic insecurity and renewed violence, especially in rural areas, continue to impede recovery from decades of war, and limit progress for all the country’s 25 million people – particularly its children and women. The nation’s social indicators rank at or near the bottom among developing countries: average life expectancy is below 45 years; 40 to 60 percent of Afghan children are stunted or chronically malnourished; and the maternal mortality rate, at 1,600 per 100,000 live births, is one of the highest in the world. At least 50 women die every day from pregnancy-related complications and fewer than 2 per cent of women have ever attended a hospital or clinic. Despite the considerable success of the 2003 UNICEF-assisted back-to-school campaign, the enrolment of girls in rural areas is barely 30 per cent; the literacy rate for young women (aged 15-24) is only 18 per cent (versus 50 per cent for boys); while girls’ primary school completion rate is only 13 per cent (versus 32 per cent for boys). Factors preventing girls from attending school include accessibility and security, the need to work, poverty and child marriage, the latter accounting for 43 per cent of all marriages. The destruction or closure of schools for security reasons in several southern provinces further restricts girls’ access to an education. Additionally, 20 to 30 per cent of children must work to help support their families. Despite these challenges, the Government and its partners have put more than 4 million girls and boys back in school since 2005; some 64 per cent of children are fully immunized against the five major immuno-preventable childhood diseases; and Afghanistan – one of only four remaining polio endemic countries in the world – is on the verge of stopping wild poliovirus transmission within its territory. In other areas, UNICEF works to improve maternal health services; reduce under-five mortality; expand quality education, especially for girls and women; and ensure food security and equitable access to nutrition services.
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Polio vaccine

Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat poliomyelitis (or polio). The first was developed by Jonas Salk and first tested in 1952. Announced to the world by Dr Thomas Francis Junior on April 12, 1955, it consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus. An oral vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin using attenuated poliovirus. Human trials of Sabin's vaccine began in 1957, and it was licensed in 1962. There is no long term carrier state for poliovirus in immunocompetent individuals, polioviruses have no non-primate reservoir in nature (although they have been induced in transgenic mice), and survival of the virus in the environment for an extended period of time appears to be remote. Therefore, interruption of person to person transmission of the virus by vaccination is the critical step in global polio eradication. The two vaccines have eradicated polio from most countries in the world, and reduced the worldwide incidence from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to just 223 cases in 2012.

In November 2013, the World Health Organization announced a polio outbreak in Syria. In response, the Armenian government put out a notice asking Syrian Armenians under age 15 to get the polio vaccine.


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Vaccination

Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate morbidity from infection. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for example, the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.

The active agent of a vaccine may be intact but inactivated (non-infective) or attenuated (with reduced infectivity) forms of the causative pathogens, or purified components of the pathogen that have been found to be highly immunogenic (e.g., outer coat proteins of a virus). Toxoids are produced for immunization against toxin-based diseases, such as the modification of tetanospasmin toxin of tetanus to remove its toxic effect but retain its immunogenic effect.


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Polio vaccine Triangle
Vaccination Triangle