The population of Afghanistan is around 31 million (est) as of the year 2013, which includes the 2.7 million Afghan refugees that are residing temporarily in Pakistan and Iran. The nation is composed of a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual society, reflecting its location astride historic trade and invasion routes between Central Asia, Southern Asia, and Western Asia. The majority of Afghanistan's population consist of Pashtun people followed by Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch and others.
Pashto and Dari are both the official languages of the country, Dari (Afghan Persian) is mostly spoken in the Tajik and Hazara dominated areas while Pashto is spoken mainly in the Pashtun tribal areas south of the Hindu Kush mountains. Uzbek language and Turkmen language are spoken in parts of the north. Smaller groups in various parts of the country speak about 30 other languages. Multilingualism is common throughout the country, especially in the major cities.