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bell-shaped mottlegill — Fotopedia
not edible
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Panaeolus papilionaceus var. papilionaceus

Panaeolus papilionaceus var. papilionaceus, also known as Agaricus calosus, Panaeolus papilionaceus, Panaeolus campanulatus, Panaeolus retirugis, and Panaeolus sphinctrinus, and commonly known as Petticoat mottlegill, is a common and widely distributed little brown mushroom that feeds on dung.

This mushroom is the type species for the genus Panaeolus.


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Psilocybin mushroom

Psilocybin mushrooms, also known as psychedelic mushrooms, are mushrooms that contain the psychedelic drugs psilocybin and psilocin. Common colloquial terms include magic mushrooms and shrooms. Biological genera containing psilocybin mushrooms include Copelandia, Galerina, Gymnopilus, Inocybe, Mycena, Panaeolus, Pholiotina, Pluteus, and Psilocybe. About 40 species are found in the genus Psilocybe. Psilocybe cubensis is the most common psilocybin mushroom in subtropical areas and the black market.

Psilocybin mushrooms have likely been used since prehistoric times and may have been depicted in rock art. Many cultures have used these mushrooms in religious rites. In modern Western society, they are used recreationally for their psychedelic effects.


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Psilocin

Psilocin (also known as 4-OH-DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin), is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance. It is present in most psychedelic mushrooms together with its phosphorylated counterpart psilocybin. Psilocin is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The mind-altering effects of psilocin are highly variable and subjective and resemble those of LSD and DMT.


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Psilocybin

Psilocybin (/ˌsɪləˈsbɪn/ SIL-ə-SY-bin) is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms. The most potent are members of the genus Psilocybe, such as P. azurescens, P. semilanceata, and P. cyanescens, but psilocybin has also been isolated from about a dozen other genera. As a prodrug, psilocybin is quickly converted by the body to psilocin, which has mind-altering effects similar (in some aspects) to those of LSD, mescaline, and DMT. In general, the effects include euphoria, visual and mental hallucinations, changes in perception, a distorted sense of time, and spiritual experiences, and can include possible adverse reactions such as nausea and panic attacks.


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Psilocybe

Psilocybe is a genus of small mushrooms growing worldwide. This genus is best known for its species with psychedelic properties, widely known as "magic mushrooms". Psilocin and psilocybin are the psychedelic compounds responsible for the psychoactive effects of many species in the genus.


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Psychoactive drug

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that crosses the blood–brain barrier and acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it affects brain function, resulting in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, and behavior. These substances may be used recreationally, to purposefully alter one's consciousness, or as entheogens, for ritual, spiritual, or shamanic purposes, as a tool for studying or augmenting the mind. Many psychoactive drugs have therapeutic utility, e.g., as anesthetics, analgesics, or for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

Psychoactive substances often bring about subjective (although these may be objectively observed) changes in consciousness and mood that the user may find pleasant (e.g. euphoria) or advantageous (e.g. increased alertness) and are thus reinforcing. Thus, many psychoactive substances are abused, that is, used excessively, despite health risks or negative consequences. With sustained use of some substances, psychological and physical dependence ("addiction") may develop, making the cycle of abuse even more difficult to interrupt. Drug rehabilitation aims to break this cycle of dependency, through a combination of psychotherapy, support groups, maintenance and even other psychoactive substances. However, the reverse is also true in some cases, that certain experiences on drugs may be so unfriendly and uncomforting that the user may never want to try the substance again. This is especially true of the deliriants (e.g. Jimson weed) and powerful dissociatives (e.g. Salvia divinorum). Most purely psychedelic drugs are considered to be non-addictive (e.g. LSD, psilocybin, mescaline). "Psychedelic amphetamines" or empathogen-entactogens (such as MDA and MDMA) may produce an additional stimulant or euphoriant effect, and thus have an addiction potential.