A Caesarean section, (also C-section, Caesarian section, Cesarean section, Caesar, etc.) is a surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother's abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies, or, rarely, to remove a dead fetus. A late-term abortion using Caesarean section procedures is termed a hysterotomy abortion and is very rarely performed. The first modern Caesarean section was performed by German gynecologist Ferdinand Adolf Kehrer in 1881.
A Caesarean section is usually performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby's or mother's life or health at risk, although in recent times it has also been performed upon request for childbirths that could otherwise have been natural. In recent years, the rate has risen to a record level of 46% in China and to levels of 25% and above in many Asian, European and Latin American countries. The rate has increased significantly in the United States, to 33 percent of all births in 2011, up from 21 percent in 1996, and in the rate in 2009 varied widely between hospitals (ranging from 6.9% to 69.9% of births). Across Europe, there are significant differences between countries: in Italy the Caesarean section rate is 40%, while in the Nordic countries it is only 14%. Medical professional policy makers find that elective cesarean can be harmful to the fetus and neonate without benefit to the mother, and have established strict guidelines for non-medically indicated cesarean before 39 weeks.
Surgery (from the Greek: χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and έργον, "work"), via Latin: chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.
An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical procedure, operation, or simply surgery. In this context, the verb operate means to perform surgery. The adjective surgical means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments or surgical nurse. The patient or subject on which the surgery is performed can be a person or an animal. A surgeon is a person who practises surgery. Persons described as surgeons are commonly physicians, but the term is also applied to podiatrists, dentists (known as oral and maxillofacial surgeons) and veterinarians. A surgery can last from minutes to hours, but is typically not an ongoing or periodic type of treatment. The term surgery can also refer to the place where surgery is performed, or simply the office of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian.
Elective surgery generally refers to a surgical procedure that can be scheduled in advance because it does not involve a medical emergency. Plastic, or cosmetic surgeries are common elective procedures.