The Alpine ibex (Capra ibex), also known as the steinbock, is a species of wild goat that lives in the mountains of the EuropeanAlps. It is a sexuality dimorphic species with larger males who carry larger, curved horns. The coat colour is typically brownish grey. Ibex tend to live in steep, rough terrain above the snow line. They are also social, although adult males and females segregate for most of the year, coming together only to mate. Four distinct groups exist; adult male groups, female-offsping groups, groups of young individuals, and mixed sex groups.
During the breeding season, males fight for access to females and use their long horns in agonistic behaviours. After being extirpated from most areas by the 19th century, the Alpine ibex was reintroduced to parts of its historical range and all individuals living today descend from the stock in Gran Paradiso National Park in northwest Italy. The species is currently listed as of least concern by the IUCN.
Fauna of Europe is all the animals living in Europe and its surrounding seas and islands. Since there is no natural biogeographic boundary in the east and south between Europe and Asia, the term "fauna of Europe" is somewhat elusive. Europe is the western part of the Palearcticecozone (which in turn is part of the Holarctic). Lying within the temperate region, (north of the equator) the wildlife is not as rich as in warmer regions, but nevertheless diverse due to the variety of habitats and the faunal richness of the Eurasia as a whole.
Before the arrival of humans European fauna was more diverse and widespread than today. The European megafauna of today is much reduced from its former splendour. The Holocene extinction drastically reduced numbers and distribution of megafauna. Many of these species still exist in smaller number, while others thrive in developed continent free from natural predators. Many other species went extinct all together.