Bahia (local pronunciation: [baˈi.ɐ]) is one of the 26 states of Brazil, and is located in the eastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast. It is the fourth most populous Brazilian state after São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, and the fifth-largest in size. Bahia's capital is the city of Salvador, or more properly, São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos, and is located at the junction of the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of All Saints,officially first seen by European sailors in 1501. The name "bahia" is an archaic spelling of the Portuguese word baía, meaning "bay".
The Chapada Diamantina is at the center of Bahia state, in the Northeast of Brazil. It is the setentrional zone of the Espinhaço Range, has approximately 38.000 km2 and encompasses 58 municipalities. Technically it is considered part of the Bioma Caatinga, and is the highest area in this bioma, almost all of it over 500 m of altitude. The vegetation, always conditioned by the physiographic conditions, is represented by the Cerrado, rocky fields, forests and Caatinga, all of them harbouring great biodiversity and endemisms. The regions climate is considered to be Mesotermic, of the Cwb according to the Koeppen classification, and is quite cooler than the surroundings, with annual averages under 22oC.But usually, considering the area currently used as tourism destination, one think of Chapada Diamantina as the region roughly between the cities of Mucugê (S 13o, W 41o 22’) at the South, Andaraí (S 12o 41’ 26’’, W 41o 19’ 36’’) at the Southeast, Lençóis (S 12o 33’, W 41o 43’) at Northeast and Palmeiras (S 11o 9’, W 42o 3’) at Northwest. This region is named the Serra do Sincorá Ridge. Notwithstanding, the city of Ibicoara, near the southern limits of Chapada, is also becoming important. The Sincorá Ridge is N – S oriented and has a length of 160 km and 20 to 30 km of width. The breathtaking landscape, its huge canyons with rivers of brownish waters, the high altitude grasslands, known locally as Gerais, innumerous waterfalls and a great extent of trails, once used by miners in their search for diamonds, makes it one of the best destinations in the country for the practice of outdoor activities. At the city of Lençóis, one of the most important, one can find quite a few ecotourism agencies as well as independent guides ready to organize tours through the region. Maybe Chapada Diamantina is the best destination for the practice of trekking in the country. Among the main attractions are the Pai Inácio Hill, Fumaça Waterfall,Mixila Waterfall, Sossego Waterfall and the Vale do Pati which is considered the best trekking destination in the country. Rock climbing is a relatively new activity, but is developing quickly as some local and outside climbers are opening more and more sport and traditional routes, mainly at the city of Lençóis and at Vale do Capão, district of Palmeiras and at Igatú, district of Andaraí. Lençóis, one of the main cities is 420 km from Salvador and can be reached by car, bus or plane.