The Cameroon line is a 1,000 km (620 mi) chain of volcanoes. It includes islands in the Gulf of Guinea and mountains that extend along the border region of eastern Nigeria and western Cameroon, from Mount Cameroon on the Gulf of Guinea north and east towards Lake Chad. The islands, which span the equator, have tropical climates and are home to many unique plant and bird species. The mainland mountain regions are much cooler than the surrounding lowlands, and also contain unique and ecologically important environments.
The Cameroon volcanic line is geologically unusual in extending through both the ocean and the continental crust. Various theories have been advanced by different geologists to explain the line.