In 2011, the population of Nepal was 26,494,504 (census 2011). The present median growth rate is 1.596% and the median age is 21.6 years. Female median age is estimated at 22.5 years, and male median age at 20.7 years. Only 4.4% of the population are estimated to be more than 65 years old, comprising 681,252 females and 597,628 males, whereas 61.1% of the population is between 15 and 64 years old, and 34.6% is estimated at younger than 14 years. Birth rate is estimated at 22.17 births/1,000 population with an infant mortality rate at 44.54 deaths per 1,000 live births. Life expectancy at birth is estimated at 67.44 years for females and 64.94 years for males. Death rate is estimated at 681 deaths per 100,000 people. Net migration rate is estimated at 61 migrants per 100,000 people. According to the 2011 census, only 68.6% of the total population is literate.
The words "Nepali" and "Nepalis" are gaining widespread popularity in English usage as opposed to Nepalese, which is an Anglicized version.
The Newa people or Newars are the people of Nepal, Kathmandu Valley. The valley and surrounding territory have been known from ancient times as Nepal Mandala.
Newars have lived in Nepal Mandala since prehistoric times, and immigrants that arrived at different periods in its history eventually merged with the local population by adopting their language and customs. Newars are a linguistic and cultural community of mostly Tibeto-Burman and some Indo-Aryan ethnicities. Scholars have also described the Newars as being a nation.
Scholars in this field have consensus that prehistoric Newars were originally interconnected to the ancient Kirat people (Kiratis). Stone Age, prehistoric Kirat tools found by Anatoly Yakoblave Shetenko (Leningrad Institute of Archaeology) date back to 30,000 years ago, matching prehistoric tools unearthed in China's Gobi Desert and Yunnan.
According to Nepal's 2011 census, the 1,321,933 Newars in the country are the nation's sixth largest ethnic group, representing 5% of the population.