Dominance hierarchy arises when members of a social group interact, often aggressively, to create a ranking system. In social living groups, members are likely to compete for access to limited resources and mating opportunities. Rather than fight each time they meet, relative relationships are formed between members of the same sex. These repetitive interactions lead to the creation of a social order that is subject to change each time a dominant animal is challenged by a subordinate one.
Pinnipeds, also known as fin-footed mammals (from Latin pinna, wing or fin, and ped-, foot), often generalized as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse group of fin-footed marine mammals which are semiaquatic comprising the families Odobenidae (the walrus), Otariidae (eared seals, sea lions, and fur seals), and Phocidae (earless seals). The family does not include cetaceans, otters, or manatees.