The islands of the Philippines are inhabited by a number of different ethnic groups. The majority of the population is composed of ethnolinguistic groups whose languages are Austronesian also known as Malayo-Polynesian in origin. Many of these groups converted to Christianity, particularly the lowland-coastal groups, and adopted many foreign elements of culture. These ethnic groups include the Cebuano, Ilocano, Pangasinense, Kapampangan, Tagalog, Bicolano, Waray, Surigaonon and Hiligaynon also called Ilonggo.
In Mindanao, there are indigenous groups who practice Islam. The Spanish called them Moros after the Moors (despite no resemblance or cultural ties to them apart from their religion). In some highland areas of Mindanao, there are mountain-dwelling ethnic groups collectively known as lumad. These people do not practice Islam, and maintain their animistic beliefs and traditions.
The Negrito are a pre-Mongoloid people who migrated from mainland Asia and were one of the earliest human beings to settle the Philippines, around 90,000 years ago. The first known were the people of the Callao Man remains. The Negrito population are estimated to number around 30,000. Their tribal groups include the Ati, and the Aeta. Their ways of life remain mostly free from Western and Islamic influences. Scholars study them to try to understand pre-Hispanic culture.
Demographics of the Philippines are records of human population in the country, including its population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population. The Philippines has a population growth rate of 2.04%, one of the highest in Asia. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the Philippines was 92,337,852.
The majority of Filipinos are made up of various ethnolinguistic Austronesian ethnic groups, while the Agtas, an indigenous dark-skinned people form a minority. The indigenous population is closely related to indigenous Malaysians and Indonesians. Ethnic groups that have been in the Philippines for centuries before European and American colonial rule have assimilated, such as various Japanese people, Han Chinese, Indian people, etc., and form a large part of the population.
The most commonly spoken language is Filipino, which is based on the Tagalog language. Filipino and English are the official languages. Additionally, there are between 120 to 170 distinct indigenous Philippine languages (depending on their classification), a dozen of which have over one million speakers and are recognized as official regional languages. Spanish and Arabic are recognized as voluntary and optional languages in the Philippine constitution. Christianity is the main religion, with Roman Catholicism making up the majority of the population. Other religions include Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and those with no religion. The people of the Philippines are known as Filipinos.