Alexandre Gustave Eiffel né Bönickhausen (pron.: /ˈaɪfəl/French pronunciation: [efɛl]) (15 December 1832 – 27 December 1923) was a French civil engineer, architect and freemason. A graduate of the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, he made his name with various bridges for the French railway network, most famously the Garabit viaduct. He is best known for the world-famous Eiffel Tower, built for the 1889 Universal Exposition in Paris, France. After his retirement from engineering, Eiffel concentrated his energies on research into meteorology and aerodynamics, making important contributions in both fields.