Kumkuma is a powder used for social and religious markings in Hinduism. It is either made from turmeric or saffron. The turmeric is dried and powdered with a bit of slaked lime, which turns the rich yellow powder into a red color.
In India, it is known by various names including kuṅkumam (Sanskrit कुङ्कुमम्), kunku (Marathi कुंकू), kumkum (Bengali কুমকুম, Hindi), kunkumam (Tamil குங்குமம்), kumkuma (Telugu కుంకుమ , Kannada ಕುಂಕುಮ ), Kungkumam (Malayalam കുങ്കുമം).
Holi (Hindi: होली, Nepali: होली, Punjabi: ਹੋਲੀ Sindhi: هولي) is a spring festival celebrated as a festival of colours. It is a Hindu religious festival which has also become popular with people of other communities.
It is primarily observed in India and Nepal. It is also observed by the minority Hindus in Bangladesh and Pakistan as well in countries with large Indic diaspora populations following Hinduism, such as Suriname, Malaysia, Guyana, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, the United Kingdom, the United States, Mauritius, and Fiji.
Holi is also known as Phagwah (Assamese: ফাকুৱা), Festival of Colours, or Doḷajātra (Oriya: ଦୋଳଯାତ୍ରା) in Odisha, and as Dol Jatra (Bengali: দোলযাত্রা) or Basantotsav ("spring festival") (Bengali: বসন্তোৎসব) in West Bengal and Assam.