Moscow (/ˈmɒskaʊ/ or /ˈmɒskoʊ/; Russian: Москва, tr.Moskva; IPA: [mɐˈskva] ( listen)) is the capital city and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural and scientific center in Russia and in Europe. According to Forbes 2012, Moscow has the second largest community of billionaires in the world. Moscow is the northernmost megacity on Earth, the most populous city in Europe, and the 6th largest city proper in the world. It is the largest city in Russia with a population, according to the 2010 Census, of 11,503,501. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the capital increased its area 2.5 times; from about 1,000 square kilometers (390 sq mi) up to 2,511 square kilometers (970 sq mi), and gained additional population of 233,000 people.
The name Kremlin means "fortress", and is often used as a metonym to refer to the government of the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and its highest members (such as general secretaries, premiers, presidents, ministers, and commissars), in the same way that the metonym Élysée Palace refers to the President of the French Republic, the White House refers to the Executive Office of the President of the United States and Number 10 Downing Street or Whitehall refers to the Offices of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the British Government. It is still used in reference to the government of the Russian Federation and even the Russian President's official website is Kremlin.ru. "Kremlinology" refers to the study of Soviet and Russian politics.