The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.
At 165.25 million square kilometres (63.8 million square miles) in area, this largest division of the World Ocean – and, in turn, the hydrosphere – covers about 46% of the Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of the Earth's land area combined. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres (35,797 ft).
The eastern Pacific Ocean was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur. The ocean's current name was bestowed by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish expedition of world circumnavigation in 1521, who encountered favourable winds as he reached the ocean and called it Mar Pacifico in Portuguese, meaning "peaceful sea".
Endeavour Reef is a coral reef within the Great Barrier Reef. The reef is about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) long and runs in an east-west direction. The center of the reef is located at . It is about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) south-east of the Hope Islands in the Hope Islands National Park and 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) off the mainland.
It was encountered by Lieutenant James Cook when HM Bark Endeavour ran aground there on 11 June 1770. In his journals, Cook described striking the south-eastern end of the reef at 11pm after having passed just north of Pickersgill Reef about one hour before.
Philip Parker King described the region in his Voyages for the Survey of the Intertropical coasts of Australia Volume 2 following his expeditions between 1818 and 1820. King described the reef as being "... nine miles long; it lies in a North-West direction; the north end, in 15 degrees 39 minutes South, bears due from the North-east Hope." and stated that there was a dry rock on the western edge "... in latitude 15 degrees 39 minutes 55 seconds." It is probable that he was referring to Claims Reef which is further to the north.