Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat poliomyelitis (or polio). The first was developed by Jonas Salk and first tested in 1952. Announced to the world by Dr Thomas Francis Junior on April 12, 1955, it consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus. An oral vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin using attenuated poliovirus. Human trials of Sabin's vaccine began in 1957, and it was licensed in 1962. There is no long term carrier state for poliovirus in immunocompetent individuals, polioviruses have no non-primate reservoir in nature (although they have been induced in transgenic mice), and survival of the virus in the environment for an extended period of time appears to be remote. Therefore, interruption of person to person transmission of the virus by vaccination is the critical step in global polio eradication. The two vaccines have eradicated polio from most countries in the world, and reduced the worldwide incidence from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to just 223 cases in 2012.
In November 2013, the World Health Organization announced a polio outbreak in Syria. In response, the Armenian government put out a notice asking Syrian Armenians under age 15 to get the polio vaccine. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.
A liposome is an artificially-prepared spherical vesicle composed of a lipid bilayer. The liposome can be used as a vehicle for administration of nutrients and pharmaceutical drugs. Liposomes can be prepared by disrupting biological membranes (such as by sonication).
Liposomes are often composed of phosphatidylcholine-enriched phospholipids and may also contain mixed lipid chains with surfactant properties such as egg phosphatidylethanolamine. A liposome design may employ surface ligands for attaching to unhealthy tissue.
The major types of liposomes are the multilamellar vesicle (MLV), the small unilamellar vesicle (SUV), the large unilamellar vesicle (LUV), and the cochleate vesicle.
Liposomes should not be confused with micelles and reverse micelles composed of monolayers.