The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer native to Arctic and Subarctic regions. This includes both resident and migratory populations. While overall widespread and numerous, some of its subspecies are rare and at least one has already gone extinct.
Reindeer vary considerably in color and size. Both sexes grow antlers, though they are typically larger in males. However, there are a few populations in which females lack antlers completely.
Wild reindeer hunting and herding of semi-domesticated reindeer (for meat, hides, antlers, milk and transportation) are important to several Arctic and Subarctic peoples. The reindeer is well known in folklore due to Santa Claus's sleigh being pulled by flying reindeer, a popular element of Christmas. In Lapland, reindeer pull pulks.
Capreolinae, Odocoileinae, or the New World deer (denoting their place of origin, not their current distribution), is a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the telemetacarpal deer, due to their ankle structure being different from the plesiometacarpal deer of Cervinae.
The list is based on the studies of Randi, Mucci, Claro-Hergueta, Bonnet and Douzery (2001); Pitraa, Fickela, Meijaard, Groves (2004); Ludt, Schroeder, Rottmann and Kuehn (2004); Hernandez-Fernandez and Vrba (2005); Groves (2006); Ruiz-Garcia, M., Randi, E., Martinez-Aguero, M. and Alvarez D. (2007); Duarte, J.M.B., Gonzalez, S. and Maldonado, J.E. (2008)