Russiai/ˈrʌʃə/ or /ˈrʊʃə/ (Russian: Россия, tr.Rossiya; IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə] ( listen)), also officially known as the Russian Federation (Russian: Российская Федерация, tr.Rossiyskaya Federatsiya; IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə] ( listen)), is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federalsemi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the world's ninth most populous nation with 143 million people as of 2012. Extending across the whole of northern Asia, Russia spans nine time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources and is the largest producer of oil and natural gas globally. Russia has the world's largest forest reserves. Its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's liquid fresh water, 20% in Lake Baikal alone.
A kremlin (Russian: кремль, tr.kreml; IPA: [ˈkrʲemlʲ], fortress; same root as in kremen (Russian: кремень, tr.kremen; IPA: [krʲɪˈmenʲ], flint)) is a major fortified central complex found in historic Russian cities. This word is often used to refer to the most famous one, the Moscow Kremlin, or metonymically to the government that is based there. Outside Russia, the name Kremlin is sometimes mistakenly thought of as being Saint Basil's Cathedral because of its distinctive environment, although the cathedral is not a part of the Moscow Kremlin.
Russia's presidential administration is located in the Moscow Kremlin. During the Cold War the government of the USSR was located in the Moscow Kremlin but now the Russian government occupies a building outside it.