A'la Azad Abul Muzaffar Shahab ud-Din Mohammad Khurram, known by his imperial name Shah Jahan, (Urdu: شاه جهاں; Persian: شاه جهان king of the world) (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) was emperor of the Mughal Empire in South Asia from 1628 until 1658. He was the fifth Mughal emperor after Babur, Humayun, Akbar, and Jahangir. While young, he was the favourite of his legendary grandfather, Akbar the Great.
At a young age, he was chosen as successor to the Mughal throne after the death of Emperor Jahangir. He succeeded to the throne upon his father's death in 1627. He is considered to be one of the greatest Mughals. His reign has been called the Golden Age of the Mughals and one of the most prosperous ages of Indian civilization. Like Akbar, he was eager to expand his vast empire. In 1658, he fell ill and was confined by his son Emperor Aurangzeb in Agra Fort until his death in 1666.
The period of his reign was the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan erected many splendid monuments, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, built in 1632–1648 as a tomb for his beloved wife, Empress Mumtaz Mahal. The Moti Masjid, Agra and many other buildings in Agra, the Red Fort and the Jama Masjid in Delhi, mosques in Lahore, extensions to Lahore Fort and a mosque in Thatta also commemorate him. The famous Takht-e-Taus or the Peacock Throne, said to be worth millions of dollars by modern estimates, also dates from his reign. He was also the founder of the new imperial capital called Shahjahanabad, now known as Old Delhi. Other important buildings of Shah Jahan's rule were the Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i-Khas in the Red Fort Complex in Delhi and the Moti Masjid in the Lahore Fort. Shah Jahan is also believed to have had the most refined of the tastes in the arts and architecture, and is credited with having commissioned about 777 gardens in Kashmir, his favourite summer residence. A few of these gardens survive, attracting thousands of tourists every year.