A'la Azad Abul Muzaffar Shahab ud-Din Mohammad Khurram (Persian: شهاب الدین محمد خرم) (March 4, 1592 – February 1, 1666) better known by his imperial name Shah Jahan (Persian: شاه جهان), was the son of Emperor Jahangir and his Hindu Rajput wife, Taj Bibi Bilqis Makani (13 May 1573 – 18 April 1619). He was the fifth Mughal Emperor who reigned from 1628 until 1658. While young, Khurram was the favourite of his legendary grandfather, the third Mughal emperor Akbar the Great.
At a young age, he was chosen as successor to the Mughal throne after the death of his father, Emperor Jahangir, in 1627. He is considered one of the greatest Mughals. His reign has been called the Golden Age of the Mughals and one of the most prosperous ages of Indian civilization. Like Akbar, he was eager to expand his vast empire. In 1658, he fell ill and was confined by his son Emperor Aurangzeb in Agra Fort until his death in 1666.
Unlike his father and his grandfather, Shah Jahan was an orthodox and pious Muslim. Upon his accession, he adopted new policies which steadfastly reversed Akbar's generally liberal treatment of non-Muslims. In 1633, his sixth regnal year, Shah Jahan began to impose Sharia provisions against construction or repair of churches and temples and subsequently ordered the demolitions of newly built Hindu temples. He celebrated Islamic festivals with great pomp and grandeur and with an enthusiasm unfamiliar to his predecessors. Long-dormant royal interest in the Holy Cities also revived during his reign.