Shah Jahan (Hindustani: شاه جهان, शाह जहाँ; January 1592 – 22 January 1666) was the fifth Mughal Emperor of India. He is also known as Shah Jahan I. He ruled from 1628 until 1658 CE.
Born Prince Khurram, he was the son of Emperor Jahangir and his Hindu Rajput wife, Taj Bibi Bilqis Makani (13 May 1573 – 18 April 1619). While young, Khurram was the favourite of his legendary grandfather, the third Mughal emperor Akbar.
At a young age, he was chosen as successor to the throne after the death of his father in 1627. He is considered one of the greatest Mughals. His rule has been called the Golden Age and one of the most prosperous ages of Indian civilization. Like Akbar, he was eager to expand his vast empire. In 1658, he fell ill and was confined by his son Aurangzeb in Agra Fort until his death in 1666.
Unlike his father and his grandfather, Shah Jahan was an orthodox and pious Muslim. Upon his accession, he adopted new policies which steadfastly reversed Akbar's generally liberal treatment of non-Muslims. In 1633, his sixth regnal year, Shah Jahan began to impose Sharia provisions against construction or repair of churches and temples and subsequently ordered the demolitions of newly built Hindu temples. He celebrated Islamic festivals with great pomp and grandeur and with an enthusiasm unfamiliar to his predecessors. Long-dormant royal interest in the Holy Cities also revived during his reign.
The period of his reign was the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan erected many splendid monuments, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, built in 1632–1648 as a tomb for his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.