Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil compressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. Sunflower oil is commonly used in food as a frying oil, and in cosmetic formulations as an emollient. Sunflower oil was first industrially produced in 1835 in the Russian Empire. The world's largest sunflower oil producers now are Ukraine and Russia.
Sunflower oil is mono unsaturated and polyunsaturated (MUFA/PUFA)oil of oleic-linoleic acid group of oils. The oil content of the seed ranges from 22 to 36% (average, 28%): the kernel contains 45–55% oil. The expressed oil is of light amber color with a mild and pleasant flavor; refined oil is pale yellow. Refining losses are low and the oil has good keeping qualities with light tendency for flavor reversion. The oil contains appreciable quantities of vitamins A, D, and E, sterols, squalene, and other aliphatic hydrocarbons,terpene and methyl ketones(chiefly methyl nonyl ketone).
Baba ghanoush (Arabic بابا غنوج bābā ghanūj, baba ganush, baba ghannouj or baba ghannoug) is a Levantine dish of eggplant (aubergine) mashed and mixed with virgin olive oil and various seasonings. The Arabic term means "father of coquetry," which has been interpreted to suggest that it was invented by a member of a harem, although "ghanoush" may be a personal name.
A popular preparation method is for the eggplant to be baked or broiled over an open flame before peeling, so that the pulp is soft and has a smoky taste. Often, it is eaten as a dip with khubz or pita bread, and is sometimes added to other dishes. It is usually of an earthy light-brown color. It is popular in the Levant (area covering Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian Territories, Jordan, Kurdistan, Egypt, and Israel).
A similar dish is known as mutabbal (متبل literally 'spiced') in the Levant.
In Syria and Lebanon, baba ghanoush is a starter or appetizer; in Egypt it is mostly served as a side dish or salad. It is made of eggplant blended with finely diced onions, tomatoes, and other vegetables. It is made of roasted, peeled, and mashed eggplant, blended with tahini, garlic, salt, white vinegar and lemon juice. Cumin and chili powder can be added. It is normally served with a dressing of olive oil and pomegranate concentrate. In the traditional method, the eggplant is first roasted in an oven for approximately 30 to 90 minutes (depending on the size of the eggplant) until the skin appears almost burnt and the eggplant begins to collapse. The softened flesh is scooped out, squeezed or salted to remove excess water, and is then pureed with the tahini. There are many variants of the recipe, especially the seasoning. Seasonings include garlic, lemon juice, ground cumin, salt, mint, and parsley. When served on a plate or bowl, it is traditional to drizzle the top with olive oil.